The use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) by insurgents continues to represent a major threat to conventional Defence forces around the world. Part of the reason this threat is so effective is the rapidly changing nature of its use. JP154 aimed to understand and further develop Australian Defence’s capability to defeat these IEDs as their use continues to evolve. Shoal supported this early-stage capability design effort, running a series of stakeholder workshops to understand the problem context and the proposed solutions. We used a structured model-based approach to gather this information and relate it in a model. This model was then used to produce an overarching understanding of the problem (in the form of an Operational Concept Document) and specification for a “family of systems” that addressed high-priority aspects of the identified operational needs.